Camolin, County Wexford; Archaeological Report

.16.1 Introduction Location
This site is located approximately 10km south-west of Gorey town, Co. Wexford (Figure 55).

2.16.2 Receiving Environment Placenames
Wexford or in Irish "Loch Garman"; from a Danish name meaning "Sea-washed" (Flanaghan & Flanaghan 1994, 125); old form "Weisford", which is said to mean "west fjord or bay"; old Irish name "Carman" (Joyce 1856, 33).

Camolin Park; several derivations (Joyce 1856, 35).
"Camlin" meaning 'crooked line', often applied to a river.
"Camlough" meaning 'crooked lake' ("cam" and "loch").
The place derives its name from a religious house founded according to Alban Butler, by St. Molin, second Bishop of Ferns, who died in the seventh century, and of which there are still some remains on the Mountnorrris estate (Lewis 1983, 44).

Scarawalsh in Wexford; Irish name "Sgairbh-a-Bhreathnaigh" [Scarriff-a-vranny], Walsh's scarriff or shallow ford (see Ballybrannagh); which with an obvious alteration, has given name to the barony of Scarawalsh (Joyce 1856, 87).

Kilcomb; "Kil" meaning 'church'. Originally in the parish of 'Tomb' according to Lewis (Lewis 1837, 141-142). Topography
The topography of the site comprises:
(i) Flat and dry areas. Cartographic Sources
An analysis of Ordnance Survey maps from the early nineteenth century to date gives a picture of the development of the townland over time. The forest site comprises two forest locations in this instance.

The Down Survey map c.1656 shows the barony of 'Scarwelch' and the parish of 'Macoyne', the old name of the district (Figure 57). The lands of this parish show no features at this time as they were protestant owned. The Down Survey map described the parish as 'The manor of Cloghamon, Lord Baltimore Protestant'. The forest sites are located within the parish of 'Macoyne', but no information can be gleaned from this map source. In addition, there is no woodland marked in the vicinity of the parish.

The 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1839-1841) shows the two forest locations as being densely forested which are called 'White Wood' within 'Camolin Demesne' (Figure 58). The townland of Camolin contains 974 acres. A 'Gate Lodge' is noted on the west side of the townland within the forest site on the west. A rectilinear area of planting is located south of the gate lodge with rows of trees within running north-south. A village is located to the west of the forest site with a 'R.C. Chapel' and 'School Ho.' clearly marked. The area to the north of the forest sites within the townland of Camolin is laid out in rectilinear plots running north-south and east-west. The area to the south-east of the densely forested area of 'Camolin Demesne' comprises large rectilinear field plots which are tree-lined while further south the southern boundary of the townland is wooded.

The townland of Clonee Lower and Upper to the south and west are devoid of woodland in 1839-1841 as are the townlands of Ballyduff to the north-west and Coolnaleen to the north. An area of planting is evident in Ballyduff townland around a house, possibly Ballyduff House but is unnamed at this point. 'Kilcomb Church and Grave Yard' are located in the north of this townland.

The 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1839-1841) shows a similar area forested to that on the 1st edition O.S. map (Figure 59). 'Camolin Park Demesne' is defined within 'Camolin Park' townland with an area of woodland called 'White Wood' clearly marked. The forest sites are still forested. Camolin Park townland contains 1,140 acres 3 roods and 14 perches. The area to the south-east of the forest sites within the townland is laid out in large rectilinear field plots and comprises poor quality land. The area directly adjacent to the east of the eastern forest site is shaded on this map and has been cleared as part of the demesne lands in an angular fashion. A roadway crosses the area in a north-south direction before turning east-west towards Camolin Park House to the east.

The village of Ballyduff is denoted to the west of the forest sites within Ballyduff townland with a 'Burial Ground', 'Grave Yrd.' and 'St. Mary's R. C. Church' located here. The townlands of Clonee Lower and Upper to the south and south-west as well as Ballyduff townland to the west and north-west are devoid of woodland in 1907. 'Kilcomb Church (in ruins)' and 'Graveyard' as well as 'Ballyduff Ho.' 'Saw Mill' and 'Smithy' are well defined within Ballyduff townland. History
The barony of Scarawalsh is approximately fifteen miles from north to south and fifteen miles from east to west and is situated in the north-west of the county. Evidence for the Mesolithic period has been identified in Wexford c.5000B.C. and c.3000B.C. A number of diagnostic stone implements have been found in Camolin townland, south of Gorey. "These include heavy blades of flint and stone struck from large cores fashioned in a manner similar to implements which were abundant on Mesolithic sites in Larne, county Antrim and termed 'Larnian'. The proximity of these find scatters to riverside and shoreline locations hints at the exploitation of numerous resources from a variety of habitats" (Whelan and Nolan 1987, 2).

The Early Bronze Age is attested to in Wexford by the occurrence of thirty seven cists or stone boxes discovered in the county. The most common type of cist in Wexford is the short rectangular cist including that found at the cemetery site at Scarawalsh. A number of Food Vessels were found in the cemetery cists at Scarawalsh which are typical of the grave good associated with the burial rite. The Scarawalsh cemetery contained cremated burials only.

Up to the seventeenth century, county Wexford was divided into two parts, (i) the English baronies and (ii) the Irish counties. In 1606, it was set down by inquisition that the Irish counties should be divided into three baronies including the barony of Scarawalsh. The barony of Scarawalsh included the following territories: the Duffrey, the lordship of Enniscorthy, Farrenvarse, Farrenhamon, Farenoneile, Fasaghslewboy, Clunhanricke, the lordship of Ferns, Kylcolnelyen, Kilhobucke and the bishop's lands both sides of the Bann (Whelan and Nolan 1987, 16).

In 1540 there were three religious houses in the barony of Scarawalsh, the Franciscan friary in Enniscorthy and the Augustinian abbeys at Ferns and Downe. There were also three crown manors in the barony. At this time the barony was controlled and occupied by the MacMurroughs Kavanaghs, titular kings of Leinster, who administered Gaelic Laws and customs in the area. In 1538 in an attempt to curb the power of the Kavanaghs Sir Richard Butler was appointed constable of Ferns. Between 1540 and 1570 the Kavanaghs were involved in disputes with the Crown over the ownership of their lands. During the 1570s, the Kavanaghs were in ownership of their lands, now held by patent from the crown. MacMurrough Kavanagh had three sons; Donald Reagh, Donald Langaese and Arthur Moore who held lands at Camolin in the barony of Scarawalsh (Hore 1985, 49). During the 1580s and 1590s the Kavanaghs were involved in rebelling against the power of the crown in Wexford under Donal Spáinneach. By 1600 35 per cent of the land in the barony was under the control of two English men, Henry Wallop and Thomas Masterson. Another 5 per cent were in the hands of the old English (Whelan and Nolan 1987, 4-16; 124-132).

Between 1612 and 1618 the area of north Wexford was given over to plantation by the 'New English'. This plantation was authorised by James after the success of the Ulster Plantation in 1609 (ibid, 139). Five new English were transplanted to the barony of Scarawalsh in 1640 (ibid, 140). In 1540 all the land in the barony of Scarawalsh was held by the Irish and Old English whereas by 1640, the New English had control of two thirds of the entire lands of Scarawalsh (ibid, 148). The minor Irish landowners lost possession of their lands by sale or forfeiture (ibid, 149).

By 1662 Lord Mount Norris and Lord Anglesey were members of same family and from a record in the "Book of Survey and Distribution", Lord Mount Norris is given as proprietor of Camolin which was granted to Lord Anglesey at this time. In 1662 25 of Lord Anglesey's cavalry were stationed here including 6 at Camolin and 20 at Gorey (Anon 1662, 519). At the Restoration and for some time afterwards the Annesley's-Lord Anglesey; Earl Mount Norris and many others titles lived at Camolin. In 1726, when Robert Phair left Dumaine (near New Ross), the Annesley' rented it from the Coleloughs. It was here that James Annesley was born and it is on his life that Sir Walter Scott based his book "Kidnapped". The story is recorded in

"Unsolved Mysteries of Ireland". James never took his seat in the House of Lords and his tithes died with him. The Annesley'' of Camolin are no connection to the present Lord Anglesea (Notes taken from Mary Kehoe, Wexford Historical Society).

General Background
An early account of the parish of Kilcomb is gained from Samuel Lewis in his Topographical Dictionary of Ireland during his travels in the early nineteenth century:
"Kilcomb, a parish partly in the barony of Gorey, county of Wexford and province of Leinster, 4.5 miles south-west by south from Gorey; contains 1,147 inhabitants. It comprises 5,441 statute acres chiefly in hill and valued at £2,117 per annum. Here is Camolin Park occupied by J. Edward Esq., The parish is in the diocese of Ferns and the rectory forms part of the union and prebend of Tomb. The tithes amount to £204.18.5 and a half. In the Roman Catholic division in the union or district of Ferns and has a chapel at Ballyduff. About 40 children are educated in a public and 50 in a private school" (Lewis 1837, 77).

"Camolin, a post-town, in the parish of Tomb, barony of Scarawalsh, county of Wexford, and province of Leinster, 20.75 miles north from Wexford, and 53.75 miles south from Dublin; containing 639 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Bann, on the mail coach road from Gorey to Wexford, and containes 112 houses. Immediately adjoining is Park View, the residence of H. Parke Esq., A constabulary police force is stationed here; and fairs for cattle and pigs are held on February 9th, April 4th, June 9th (the principal fair) and August 9th, September 28th and November 9th. The parish church of Tomb, and the Roman Catholic chapel of the district of Camolin, are situated in the village; and there is a dispensary" (Lewis 1983, 43-44).

"Camolin, a long road and comfortable looking forms the village of Camolin, which is a quarter of a mile from the station of the Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford Railways, 6 miles from Gorey. It derives its name from a religious hoard founded by St. Molin, second Bishop of Ferns, who died in the seventh century, small ruins of which are to be found on the Mount Norris estate. A Pattern fair is held annually, on the 9th July but its popularity is waning. Camolin is in the barony of Scarawalsh and in 1881 the population of the village and townland was estimated at 416. In 1837 the population had fallen. Among the handsome private residences of the vicinity are those of Major Morgan George Lloyd, Camolin Park and Rev. Francis Brownrigg, Norrismount. In 1885 Camolin as well as a Rector (Church of Ireland) had a Catholic Church (R.C.). The village had post-master, dispensary doctor, sergeant (RIC), National School master and mistress, Protestant schoolmaster, station master and three bakers, 6 grocers, a miller and 3 spirit dealers" (Bassett 1885, 25).

"Tomb, (variably spelt Toume, Toom or Tombe) a parish, partly in the Barony of Gorey, but chiefly in that of Scarawalsh, county of Wexford, 3 miles south-west from Gorey, on the road to Enniscorthy; containing with the post-town of Camolin, 1,905 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Bann, and comprises 6,322 statue acres, as applotted under the Tithe Act. Fairs for black cattle and pigs are held at Camolin (which see). The seats are NorrisMount, the residence of Robert Brownrisse, Esq; the Meadop Hall of T. Smith Esq., The living is a rectory, in the diocese of Ferns, united by Act of council in

1720, to those of Kilcomb and Rossmonogue, together constituting the corps of the prebend of Tomb, in the cathedral of Ferns, and in the patronage of the Bishop; the tithes amount to £276 and there is a glebe of 20 acres, also a glebe of 14 acres in Rossmonogue; the gross tithes of the benefice amount to £646.3. The church, a small plain structure with a low square tower, is situated in the town of Camolin. The ruins of an old church at Ballinclare still exist.

In the R.C. division, the parish is the head of the union or district called Camolin, belonging to the R.C. Bishop of Ferns, and comprising also the parishes of Leskinfere (or Clough), Ballycannon, Rossmagogue and the greater part of Kilnehue; the chapels are at Camolin, Corranford, Monaseed and Balloughter. The parochial school, with apartments of the Master, built on an acre of land given by the Earl of Mountnorris, is partly supported by subscription; about 40 children are educated at the school and there are three private schools in which are about 120 children and a Sunday school" (Lewis 1837, 141-142).

There are two notable houses in the vicinity of the forest including Ballyduff House to the north-west and Camolin Park House to the east.

Bence-Jones describes Camolin Park House as follows:
"A square block of superior quality, dating from the first half of the eighteenth century. Good doorcase with segmental pediment. The seat of the Annesleys, Earls of Mountnorris and Viscounts Valentia; sold by them in 1858. A ruin for many years; demolished altogether circa 1974" (Bence-Jones 1988, 55). Folklore
There was no material revealed during an examination of the Department of Irish Folklore archive in UCD.

2.16.3 Field Inspection Camolin is one of the smaller sites with the study area comprising only 10 hectares. This area forms two small parcels in a much larger forest of mixed trees (Plate 55) The study area consists of both young trees which were nearly impassable (Plate 56) and a stretch that had been clearfelled in the recent past (Plate 57). No archaeological sites identified. No vernacular buildings or field walls were located within the forest sites.

Within the forest complex, not far from the forest sites is the site of Camolin House (Plate 58). The remains of the foundation were apparently removed in recent times and the site slated. New Sites
There were no new archaeological sites identified as part of the forest survey.

2.16.4 Desk Study The Recorded Monuments (Figure 56)
The Sites and Monuments record (SMR) of Dúchas-The Heritage Service, Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands refers to the following sites within and in the environs of Camolin Woodland, County Wexford.

From the 6" Ordnance Survey maps, a list of the archaeological sites and their proximity to the woodland site was compiled.

SMR No. Distance to Camolin Woodland Site Type
WE010:021 1170m SE Delisted
WE010:014 720m SW Moated Site
WE010:010 1090m NW Church
WE010:009 1650m N Earthwork Site

There are no recorded archaeological sites within Camolin Woodland.

Within the environs of Camolin Woodland the following SMR sites are recorded:

SMR No. WE010:021
Townland Kilcomb
Barony Scarawalsh
Parish Kilcomb
Site Type Enclosure
NGR Not Indicated
Height O.D. 300' (89.60m)
Description The site is located just off the north-east edge of a slight hill The land slopes down to the east. The oval enclosure is aligned south-east north-west. The interior slopes downwards to the south-east corner. It is defined by a field fence east-west and by a low bank with external ditch west-east. It is more strictly circular shaped although the field fence from east-west is not straight but bulges out to the south.
Dimensions SE-NW = 43m
Dimensions NE-SW = 30m
The bank is only 0.40m to 0.50m high and the ditch visible at the north-west is 2m wide and 0.50m in maximum depth below the field. The bank rises 1m over the ditch but is not discernible on the north but is present at the south-east. The field fence on south rises 0.50m over the interior and 1m over the field outside. There is no ditch around the field fence. There is no recognisable entrance and no mature trees in the interior which is also overgrown with briars. The site is probably a tree-ring or plantation. It might have been visible from Camolin Park House but it is impossible to be certain now because of the forestry.
Classification Delisted
Area of Interest N/A
Distance 1170m SE

SMR No. WE010:014
Townland Clonee Upper
Barony Scarawalsh
Parish Kilcomb
Site Type Moated Site
NGR 30329/15407
6" Co-Ordinates E73.82cm N16.8cm
Height O.D. c.290' (87m)
Description The site is marked on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1841) as a hachured oblong enclosure and is marked on the 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1925) as a hachured rectangular enclosure. The site is situated on the lower slope of a southern spur of Slieveboy Hill. The slope is not severe from north-west down to south-east. The site is located on a rectangular platform aligned north-west south-east. It measures 44m NE-SW and 36m NW-SE. The cast-up from its ditch has created a bank around the perimeter which falls vertically into the flat bottomed ditch. This inner bank is 5m to 8m wide and 0.80m to 1.40m high. The moat is flat-bottomed and c.4m wide. It has an external bank which is flat-topped, c.2m across the top and with an external U or V-shaped ditch on all sides except on the south-east where it is obscured by tree-stumps from field clearance in fields to the north and east. The inner ditch is 1.40m deep below the interior and 1.60m to 2.20m deep over the outer bank. The outer ditch is 1.30m to 1.50m deep over the outer bank and c.1m below the surrounding fields. There is an animal track in south-west and south-east sides of the interior. That on the south-west also breaches the outer bank. There is a field bank outside the outer ditch on north-west side. The outer ditch is from 4.50m to 5.50m wide. There are plenty of blackthorn on the edges of the platform and on the outer bank. The growth in the interior is not great and has a lot of marks. The north-east side of the platform and outer bank is a dense mass of furze and briars. Maximum dimensions NE-SW c.68m and NW-SE c.54m. The south-east has an outer ditch external dimensions around c.58-59m.
References "Situated on slope of a hill north-west of Camolin with good views to south-east. There is a spring near the site. It is a flat platform. Internal banks 4.50m wide and 1m high. External banks 4.50m wide and 1.60m high with built up corners. Wet moat 4m wide and 1.50m deep"`(Barry 1977, 218).
Classification C
Area of Interest 50m
Distance 720m SW

SMR No. WE010:010
Townland Ballyduff (sd. By.) Kilcomb ed.
Barony Scarawalsh
Parish Kilcomb
Site Type Church
NGR 30349/15627
6" Co-Ordinates E76.07 N37.61

Height O.D. 533' (159.29m)
Description The site is marked on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1841) as "Kilcomb Ch. (in ruins); Grave Yard" and likewise on the 3rd edition Ordnance Survey Map (1925). The site is located in the bottom of a valley. The slopes are not severe immediately around the church. The valley is formed by two spurs at the foothills of Slieveboy Hill. The graveyard is triangular in shape and bordered by a stone wall with herring bone pattern. Palm trees grow on this bank and the interior is completely overgrown with nettles up to 1.50m high. There are some grave markers to be found beneath the bricks to the south of the church and two graveslabs to Morgen O' Neal and Daniel O' Neal from 1789 and 1819 within the church. The church is aligned east-west; 92 degrees on the magnetic compass. The walls of the church are up to 1m high, over half of the stones are quartz blocks, the remainder probably being shale. The walls are dry stone built and clay bonded (unless the moss has created the clay). The church has two chambers. The western chamber, the nave, is 12.30m long and is separated from the eastern cell by a wall 0.70m thick. There is a doorway 0.15m wide at southern end of this wall. The eastern cell is 3.75m long east-west and 5m wide, the same width as the western cell. No doors or windows were noticed although there is a vertical jamb in the masonry close to the dividing wall in the south wall. It is of indeterminate width. The floor of the western cell slopes down to the east. There is a ditch outside on three sides. The east side of the ditch is wet and that on the west is flat bottomed, 2.50m wide and only 0.50m deep below the outside field.
References "The old churchyard of Kilcomb is situated in the north of the townland of Ballyduff. Of the walls of the church only three feet in height remain from which it appears that it was not an ancient building. The walls were 3 feet 6 inches thick and the church was 48 feet long and 18 feet 6 inches in breadth. There is a yew tree 3 feet 6 inches in circumference growing within the church in an enclosure formed for a burial place after the church had fallen to ruin. There is no holy well near this graveyard, nor is the name of any saint remembered in connection with it" (O' Donovan 1840, 238-9).
Classification C
Area of Interest 100m
Distance 1090m NW

SMR No. WE010:009
Townland Monasootagh
Barony Scarawalsh
Parish Kilcomb
Site Type Earthwork Site
NGR 30394/15703
6" Co-Ordinates E80.50cm N44.67cm

Height O.D. 521' (156m)
Description The site is marked on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1840) but not on the 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1925). The site is situated on a north-east slope of a small shoulder of Sieveboy Hill. The slope on the field is quite severe down to the north-east. There are slight ridges or irregularities in this field but none of them indicate a circular feature. The owner knows it as the site of a raheen. He suggested that there are two fields opposite Kilcomb Church called Raheen and notes that there are slight rises in the fields. The laneway from his house towards Kilcomb Church must have been the old moate to the church but he does not know that to be the case. He says there was a right-of-way to the roads of the church but is now disused and unknown.
Byrnes Raheen field does not have a perceptible rise supposedly to the west of the trackway. Brennans Raheen field has a rise but it is unlikely to represent any kind of an enclosure. The circular enclosure to the east of Kilcomb is regarded as a raheen but it is doubtful that it is. The bank is no bigger than a field fence, the interior is very long and the shape a bit irregular. The site is noted on aerial photograph GSI T.137/8. The site is now levelled.
Classification C
Area of Interest 30m
Distance 1650m N The desk study revealed no recorded archaeological sites within Camolin forest and four recorded archaeological sites in the surrounding townlands. Stray finds
The Topographical Files of the National Museum of Ireland were examined in which all stray finds are provenanced to townland. The following is a list of the townlands within and in the environs of Camolin forest.

Townland Proximity to Forest
Camolin Park Within
Clonee Upper Adjacent to South-West
Clonee Lower Adjacent to South
Ballyduff Adjacent to North

There is one stray find recorded from the adjacent townland of Ballyduff to the north of the forest site. This comprised cremated bones, five food vessels and six faience beads described below.

There are no stray finds recorded from other adjacent and surrounding townlands in the vicinity of Camolin forest site.

Townland Ballyduff
Barony Gorey
Parish Ballycanen
6" Co-Ordinates 18.4cm to S and 33cm to W
Registration No. P1952:4, 5, 6
Find(s) Cremated Bones (4); Food Vessels (5); Faience Beads (6)
Acquisition Purchased £3 from Mr. Henry Rothwell, Mileshogue, Camolin, Co. Wexford.
Description Excavated
The cist was uncovered in a recently ploughed field close to a fence and its capstone was only 5cm to 10cm under the surface. The grave was found by Mr. Rothwell on February 8th 1952 who removed the food vessels to his house for safety. The site is located 400' O.D. on southern slope of an east-west ridge which rises to some 500'.
When found, the graves were filled to within about 25cm of the underside of the capstone, with soil in which were mixed cremated bones. The food vessel lay on its side on top of the fill in the south west corner of the grave and was said to have contained a small amount of dark loose soil which fell out. There was a depth of 15cm to 20cm of fill in the grave on top of which the pot was lying and through which the cremation was mixed. In removing the fill a small segmented bead of faience was found. This appeared to have been burnt with the body and was very fragile. It broke on being handled but two fragments were preserved and have been fitted together in the museum.
The cist is oblong in plan 50cm by 40cm with a longer north-south axis. The sides formed of four wide upright stones with a supplementary narrow upright set diagonally across the north-east and south-west corners. As the depth of the cist between the capstone and the paved floor was 40cm and the effective height of the uprights from 17cm to 30cm, it was necessary to make up the differences by a dry walling of one to three courses of flat stones. Except for the western sidestone which was a tabular block 12cm thick, the other main sidestones were triangular in section, set on their bases with the space between the sloping back surface and the side of the pit packed with clay and stones. The stones of the dry-walling were so arranged that the mouth of the cist was approximately hexagonal in plan.

Two large slabs of unequal thickness and fitting between the sidestone almost filled the floor space leaving a small area at the south-west which was completed by a paving of small stones. The floor of the grave pit was excavated in a hard yellow clay in which traces of the underlying broken shale appeared.
The vessel is of "vase" form (Abercromby's Class E). Below the shoulder the walls have a somewhat curved profile finished in a more or less straight "foot". The base is decidedly concave. A fragment from the rim, 4.5cm wide and 1cm deep was accidentally broken off by the finder and lost; otherwise the vessel is intact. The ware is of good quality, light buff on surface with black core free from large grits. In both surfaces are scattered, shallow pits, rather like "worm holes" in wood, due to a vegetable mixture (grass, straw) in the paste which disappeared in the firing. They do not resemble seed impressions.
The pot is 12.4cm in maximum height (it is asymmetrical), 13.5cm in diameter at mouth and shoulder, 12.1 cm diameter at neck and 6.8cm at base. The thickness of the wall varies between 1.2cm (lip) and 1cm.
The outside of the body and the inside bevel of the lip are profusely decorated, a combination of horizontal grooves and oblique scorings producing "ladder" patterns, hatched triangles and herringbone. On the inside of the lip four evenly-spaced concentric grooves define five ridges filled with short oblique scores which alternate to produce a continuous herringbone pattern. This arrangement is repeated on the outside. Between the neck construction and the shoulder is another zone of herringbone with a narrow band on the pinched-out shoulder moulding emphasised by grooves above and below it.
A thin band of vertical scores between two parallel grooves forms the upper border for a broad zone of alternating hatched triangles which occupies the body of the vessel. There are ten of these triangles divided one from another by a "ladder" like zig-zag strip. The hatchings within the triangular areas are in the form of deep scores parallel to one or other of the sloping sides. In making the scores a narrow, pointed piece of wood or bone was pressed into the clay and then

dragged lightly in the required direction. This "stab-and-drag" technique is quite evident in the lowermost triangles where the main obliterates the "stabs" of the earlier up-drawn scores of the pendant triangles. A herringbone and line of short down strokes on the foot of the vessel completes the ornamentation.

2.16.5 Predicted Impacts
The scale of works planned for this site will involve both clearfelling and planting. Both of these processes are inherently destructive with ground disturbances associated with the use of heavy machinery (for tree removal) and preparation of the land for planting (with the excavation of drainage ditches).

While the areas to be affected have been surveyed in an attempt at locating and identifying previously unknown archaeological sites, no new sites were revealed. However, it must be borne in mind that archaeological remains with little above ground surface expression may survive below the ground surface. Such features would only be revealed during earthmoving and ground preparation works where such archaeological sites would be directly compromised by these subsequent works. Please see the mitigations and recommendation section in volume 1 for suggested mitigations.

*Please note that it was not possible to reproduce figures for inclusion on the website version of the reports.