Glengarra Woodland Site, Tipperary South Riding; Archaeological Report

2.12.1 Introduction Location
This site is located approximately 10km south-west of the town of Cahir on the southern slopes of the Galtee mountains, Co. Tipperary (Figure 41).

2.12.2 Receiving Environment Placenames
County Tipperary; "Tiobraid Arann" [Tibrad-Auran], F.M., meaning 'the well of Ara', the ancient territory in which it was situated. "Tiobraid" is another word for "fountain", "well" or "spring" (Flanaghan & Flanaghan 1994, 151). The well that gave this name to the town and thence to the county was situated in the Main Street but it is now closed up (Joyce 1856, 78).

Hopkinsrea; no placename derivation was sourced.

Iffa and Offa West: no derivation was sourced.

Shanrahan; "Shan" or in Irish "sean" ["shan"] meaning old (Joyce 1856, 79). "Shanrahan"; in Irish "Seanraithean" meaning "old ferny place" (Flanaghan & Flanaghan 1994, 253). Topography
The topography of the site comprises:
(i) steep hills and valley, mostly dry. Cartographic Sources
An analysis of Ordnance Survey maps from the early nineteenth century to date gives a picture of the development of the townland over time.

The Down Survey map c.1656 shows the barony of Iffa and Offa West and the parish of 'Shanrehen' (Figure 43). Unfortunately the lands within this parish were owned by protestants and are not surveyed. The Down Survey map describes the parish lands as 'Sir William Fenton, Prot nt: of his Lands Shanrehen'. There is no indication of woodland in adjacent parishes on the map.

The 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1842-1843) shows the area represented by the forest site as predominately densely forested (Figure 44). The northern most area and the north-western area are not wooded. In addition a long linear zone in the centre of the forest site running north-south is not wooded in 1842-1843. The forest site is located within the townland of Hopkinsrea which contains 460 acres and 3 roods. The area on the east side of the wooded area on the 1st edition is called 'Glengarra Wood' as is the north-eastern portion of the wood. Numerous trails cross the wood. A 'Lodge' is denoted in the northern portion of the forest site while a 'waterfall' is located in the north-eastern corner of the forest site.

Cullenagh townland to the north of the forest site comprises open land while the area to the east of the forest site is partially laid out in rectilinear field plots as is the area to the west of the forest site within the townland of Garranroe. The townland of Raheenroe to the south of the forest site is well laid out in a grid like fashion comprising rectilinear field plots throughout. No wooded land is visible to the north, east or south of the forested site. A rectangular zone in the townland of Garranroe is clearly evident where it adjoins the townland of Hopkinsrea.

The 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1904-1906) shows a complete difference in the landscape of the forest site (Figure 45). The area is now much more intensely forested throughout spreading into adjacent townlands to the south-east, south and south-west. The townland of Hopkinsrea is densely forested with the eastern portion of the forest site called 'Glengarra Wood'. The 'Burncourt River' divides the forest site in half running north-south through the centre. 'Mountain Lodge' is shown in the northern portion of the forest. The townland of Hopkinsrea contains 513 acres 1 rood and 35 perches between 1904 and 1906. The townland of Garraunroe to the west and south-west shows a wooded area called 'Coolagarraunroe Wood'. History
An early account of the parish of Shanrahan is gained from Samuel Lewis in his Topographical Dictionary of Ireland during his travels in the early nineteenth century:
"Shanrahan, a parish in the barony of Iffa and Offa West, county of Tipperary and province of Munster, on road from Clonmel to Cork contains with the post town of Clogheen, 7,002 inhabitants. It comprises 13,946 statute acres as applotted under the Tithe Act. Within its limits is Shanbally Castle, the splendid mansion of Viscount Lismore erected by Mr. Nash of London; the demesne which comprises 820 acres is finely wooded and being situated in a valley between the Galtees and the Waterford mountains is surrounded by scenery of grand and imposing character. His Lordship erected a lodge in a situation of beauty in a glen of the Galtees and surrounded it with a plantation of circa 150 acres; the agriculture improving carried on under his inspection afford employment to a considerable number of persons. Rehill, the residence of William Fennell Esq., is also in the parish. A manor court is occasionally held at that place. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of Lismore episcopally united in 1774 to that of Templereeny and in the gift of the Crown. The rectory is impropriate in Lord Lismore and Caesar Sutton Esq., The tithes amount to £665 of which four fifths is payable to impropriate and the remainder to the vicar. There is a glebe of 3 acres 1 rood and 20 perches. The gross value including the glebe is £434.12.3. The church is a neat and modern edifice of hewn stone towards the erection of which the late Board of First Fruits granted a loan of £1000 in 1819.

At Burncourt are the ruins of a fine old castle mansion originally erected by one of the barons of Ikerrin and besieged and taken by a party of Cromwells army, it was enclosed in a bawn or court of considerable extent surrounded by a high wall and with its tall gables and chimneys still forms a striking object. At Shanrahan is the burial place of the O' Callaghan's family of which Lord Lismore is the head. Quin, the celebrated actor is said to have been a native of the parish" (Lewis 1837, 58).

The Anglo-Norman occupation of Tipperary included the settling of the county after 1185. The largest grants were to Philip of Worchester who received the modern baronies of Iffa and Offa West (Nolan and McGrath 1985, 35). It was considered the longest barony in Tipperary (Power 1985, 35). "The barony of Iffa ad Offa West had a total of twenty one landlord house in the eighteenth century" (Power 1985, 293).

"Shanrahan parish is considered to be the poorest parish which straddles the wild Knockmealdown mountains" (Power 1985, 291). In 1654 the parish of Shanrahan was considered one of the most profitable lands for pasture (Nolan and McGrath 1985, 160).

The O' Callaghan family of Shanrahan were one of the most powerful families in the parish and county (Power 1985, 296). They were responsible for the construction of Shanbally Castle and its demesne of over 1,200 acres in Shanbally parish. Their earlier mansion house was built around 1735. The new house was built by John Nash in 1812. Round and octagonal towers, battlements and machicolations characterised the house and the surrounding parkland was described as typical Reptonian (Nolan and McGrath 1985, 303).

Father Sheehy was popularly regarded as a saint and martyr and was associated with the repeal of the Penal Laws between the 1770s and 1780s. He was executed in 1766 for his role and by March 1769 he was blessed a 'martyr of the Cause'. His remains were sanctified and his ashes pronounced holy. His grave is said to lie in Shanrahan graveyard and there is supposed 'healing powers attributed to the multitudes of the lame, the blind and the diseased'. In addition his grave is said to be part of the holy pilgrimage of misguided papists to Shanrahan (Power 1985, 161). There is a memorial to Rev. Nicholas Sheehy in Shanrahan cemetery, Clogheen (Power 1985, 385).

"An old medieval centre in the parish of Shanrahan comprise a ruined church and a graveyard which are still in use" (Power 1985, 236). According to the census of population for Iffa and Offa West in 1851, this barony was the only one where Irish had remained the majority (Nolan and McGrath 1985, 343).

General Background
There were no notable houses recorded in the vicinity of the forest. Folklore Folklore Archive Collection, UCD
The following references refer to excerpts from the Irish Folklore Commission held within the Department of Irish Folklore. These include two main archival sources: (i) Irish Manuscript Collection (IFC.M) and (ii) Irish Schools Collection (IFC.S). The excerpts refer to accounts by locals of popular belief, customs, local place names and incidents that occurred in the parish as follows:

IFC.S V573
Holy Wells: Holy Well of Shanrahan in Shanbally Demesne; information from W. Flynn, Poundlane, Clogheen aged 80 years".

"The Holy well known locally as "The Holy Well of Shanbally". Recently called "St. Malachis Well". The name "Tobar upnai Ceasra" was gained from an old woman. The "Tobar" and "Ceasra" is definite but the middle word is difficult to obtain as without teeth she pronounces peculiarly. In former years pilgrimages to the well were carried out on Good Friday and continued on Holy Saturday and Easter Sunday.

The well is situated in "Shanbally Demesne" owned by Ladies Constance Butler and Pole Carew. The well is not marked on Ordnance Survey map 87 for Tipperary. This was the old church of Shanrahan in which Rev. Fr. W. Slaty ministered and prior to him a Fr. Keating. The outline of an enclosure (probable) is distinctly visible on an eminence, rectangular in shape and circa 85 yards by 35 yards.

Just one field away from the site is a field known as "log a sazam". It was here the priests lived formerly. This portion of the district was acquired by the Callaghans (later Lord Lismore), a high stone wall was built right round Shanbally Demesne and Shanbally Castle was built as the residence.

The well is circular having a diameter of 5' and a depth of circa 4' from top of the enclosing wall. On the wall is a plain stone cross of fairly recent erection, put there by the late Lord Lismore to mark the site of an ash tree which fell. This tree was used by pilgrims as the place on which to place "offerings of ribbons". Another tree is now used. This is a forked yew circa ten yards from the well. It is studded with nails on which hand rosary beads and scapulars left as "offerings" by those who visited the well.

Near the well lived an old man, Michelin Cahill. An old cobbler called Will Flynn who knew Miclin well told me that Miclin acted as a guide to pilgrims (strangers) and generally got some money. On one occasion a woman brought a child from near Cashel to be cured of an attack of rheumatic fever. Seeing Miclin make so well on the pilgrims she decided to remain and beg, Miclin's income was diminished and he decided to drive her away. He brought out an "ash plant" and refusing to go, he struck her on the head and wounded her pretty badly. There upon the well dried up. The woman having left the district the water returned again.

The visitors performed "rounds". A "Pater and Ave" was said at three stop places and then the rosary was recited while walking round the well. A number of cures were effected there, chiefly cures of weak eye-sight and "pains" that is rheumatism etc. One old woman, Mrs. O' Connor, Garrymore, Clogheen aged 82 told me her eye-sight was very weak after childbirth and she was cured by rubbing her eyes with the water. For pains the water is taken away and "three gulps" are drunk each morning while fasting.

At present the well is visited by many local people on Easter Sunday only but of late years the occasion is used to get into the Demesne for sight-seeing purposes mostly.

2.12.3 Field Inspection This is the smallest of all the sites, measuring only 8 hectares. It is part of a much larger forest site covering a number of hills in the vicinity. The study area consisted of both mature coniferous forest (Plate 44) and clearfelled areas (Plate 45). No archaeological sites were identified during the survey. No vernacular buildings or field walls were identified. Access was available to all parts of the study area.

A derelict house located on the hillside to the west and marked on the map as Mountain Lodge (Plate 46) could clearly be seen from the site. The main access road to the study area appears to have been constructed of large and small cobbles (Plate 47) and may be the remains of an earlier road and thus of some historical importance. New Sites
There were no new archaeological sites identified as part of the forest survey.

2.12.4 Desk Study The Recorded Monuments (Figure 43)
The Sites and Monuments record (SMR) of Dúchas-The Heritage Service, Department of Arts, Heritage, Gaeltacht and the Islands refers to the following sites within and in the environs of Glengarra, County Tipperary South Riding.

From the 6" Ordnance Survey maps, a list of the archaeological sites and their proximity to the woodland site was compiled.

SMR No. Distance to Glengarra Woodland Site Type
TI080:002 1900m SE Church possible
TI080:004/01 2300m SE Fortified House
TI080:004/02 2300m SE Bawn
TI080:004/03 2300m SE Dwelling
TI080:005 2500m SE Bridge possible

There are no recorded archaeological sites within Glengarra Woodland.

Within the environs of Glengarra Woodland the following SMR sites are recorded:

SMR No. TI080:002
Townland Burncourt
Barony Iffa and Offa West
Parish Shanrahan
Site Type Church possible
NGR 19463/11806
Height O.D. Not Indicated
Description The site is not marked on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey (1843) to the 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1906). From Powers description (1980, 60) this seems to be the location of the church he refers to on 1st edition Ordnance Survey map, a kiln is situated at the quarry which today marks the place.

References: 'Mullac na Cille'-'Summit of the Ancient Church'. The site of this early religious establishment will be found due north, at distance of two fields, from the present church. In the process of quarrying limestone for burning in a kiln close at hand greater portions of the church site proper has been cut away" (Power 1908, 45-78).
Classification C
Area of Interest 100m
Distance 1900m SE

SMR No. TI080:004
Townland Burncourt
Barony Iffa and Offa West
Parish Shanrahan
Site Type Fortified House (/01)
Bawn (/02)
Dwelling (/03)
NGR 19524/11812
Height O.D. 200'-300'
Description The site is marked on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1843) and on the 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1906).
References: "At Burncourt are the ruins of a fine old castellated mansion, originally erected by one of the barons of Ikerrin, and besieged and taken by a party of Cromwell's army: it was enclosed in a bawn or court of considerable extent, surrounded by a high wall and with its tall gables and chimneys still forms a striking object" (Lewis 1837, 552).

"Ballyshichane-upon the sd three plds. Stands the sd Sir Richard Everards Mansion House, called Ever. Castle, the walls onely standinge and some cabbins within a bawne, the sd house beinge burned is yett without repaire, a grist mill likewise stands upon the sd lands" (Simington 1931, 374).
Classification C
Area of Interest 100m
Distance 2300m SE

SMR No. TI080:005
Townland Burncourt/Monaloughra/Ballyhurrow
Barony Iffa and Offa West
Parish Shanrahan
Site Type Bridge possible
NGR 19541/11805
Height O.D. 200'-300'
Description The site is marked on the 1st edition Ordnance Survey map (1841) and on the 3rd edition Ordnance Survey map (1904-1905). Because the bridge was noted on the above maps as "Old Bridge", it was included in the archaeological record. No other details in the file.
Classification C
Area of Interest 30m
Distance 2500m SE The desk study revealed no recorded archaeological sites within Glengarra Forest and three recorded archaeological sites in the vicinity of Glengarra Forest. Stray finds
The Topographical Files of the National Museum of Ireland were examined in which all stray finds are provenanced to townland. The following is a list of the townlands within and in the environs of Glengarra forest.

Townland Proximity to Forest
Garranroe Adjacent to West
Hopkinsrea Within
Raheenroe Adjacent to South
Burncourt To South-East
Toor Beg Adjacent to East
Ballyhurrow To East
Toor More To South
Cullenagh Adjacent to North

There are two stray finds recorded from surrounding townlands. From the townland of Burncourt to the south-east a stone object was identified while from Cullenagh townland to the north a socketed bronze spearhead was found dating to the Middle-Late Bronze Age. Both are described below. There are no stray finds recorded from other adjacent and surrounding townlands in the vicinity of Glengarra forest site.

Townland Lough Derg-Cullenagh
Barony Owney and Arra
Parish Templeachally
6" Co-Ordinates 17.80cm from N and 19cm from W
Registration No. 1998:52
Find(s) Bronze Spearhead, socketed, wooden shaft
Acquisition As State property 10/09/'98, £4000 finds reward paid to Eamonn O' Connor 7276, Woodmont Avenue, Tamarac, Florida
Description Bronze spearhead, socketed with a ridge running centrally along each face from tip to the mouth of socket. The mouth of the socket is a pointed oval, the internal diagonal at the ridges being 2.60cm and the shorter diagonal being 2.30cm internally at right angles to the longer. The thickness of the metal at the socket mouth averages 1.50cm. The socket penetrates into the blade for a distance of 28.50cm; the entire length of the spearhead is 33.50cm. The external cross-section of the socket at the blade openings is sexagonal. The blade expands from the tip to within 3.20cm of the mouth of the socket and in a convex curve towards the end of the blade to accommodate two large lunate openings at the line of the socket. The edges of the blade are bevelled on both faces. The maximum width is 8.40cm. The lunate openings are identical and measure 5.20cm by 1.20cm. The tip of the wooden shaft is present in the socket. It measures 25.50cm long. It is tapered from the tip and its maximum diameter is 1.60cm. It is damaged at its widest end. The grain runs lengthwise. It is broken off approximately where the pegs would have been placed.
There are two circular peg holes, 4cm in diameter on the socket opposite each other. They are placed in the same plane as the blade and at a distance of 1.80cm from the mouth of the socket. Both the spearhead and the wooden shaft have been treated in the museum laboratory.

Townland Burncourt
Barony Iffa and Offa West
Parish Shanrahan
6" Co-Ordinates Not Indicated
Registration No. 1943:308
Find(s) Stone Object
Acquisition Deposited by OPW through Mr. H. G. Leask, Stephen Green, Dublin
Description Found in Burncourt Castle, on paved floors of cellar of castle. Stone stairs leading down to cellar and just at bottom of stairs on paved floor, stone found. Located seven feet below outside ground. Also called "Everard's Castle".

2.12.5 Predicted Impacts
The scale of works planned for this site will involve both clearfelling and planting. Both of these processes are inherently destructive with ground disturbances associated with the use of heavy machinery (for tree removal) and preparation of the land for planting (with the excavation of drainage ditches).

While the areas to be affected have been surveyed in an attempt at locating and identifying previously unknown archaeological sites, no new sites were revealed. However, it must be borne in mind that archaeological remains with little above ground surface expression may survive below the ground surface. Such features would only be revealed during earthmoving and ground preparation works where such archaeological sites would be directly compromised by these subsequent works. Please see the mitigations and recommendation section in volume 1 for suggested mitigations.

*Please note that it was not possible to reproduce figures for inclusion on the website version of the reports.